Monday, 3 January 2022

 Motor Car Mascots

Two of the most famous motor car symbols in the world must surely be Rolls Royce’s Spirit of Ecstasy, and Mercedes-Benz’s Three Pointed Star. Each of them has a much less than obvious origin.

Rolls Royce

The first Rolls Royces were delivered without any radiator ornament at all. However, in 1909, an early motoring enthusiast, John Douglas-Scott-Montagu, Lord Montagu of Beaulieu, commissioned artist and sculptor Charles Robinson Sykes to sculpt him a mascot for his own Rolls Royce Silver Ghost. Sykes took as his model Eleanor Velasco Thornton, who had risen from modest origins, and had been Montagu’s secretary, since 1902, on the staff of Montagu’s magazine, The Car Illustrated, appearing on the cover, and in skits as ‘Alice in Motorland’, and she very probably became Montagu’s mistress. 

Eleanor was already in a clique of early motoring enthusiasts, including Montagu, Sykes, Charles Rolls, Henry Royce, and Claude Johnson. She had even been involved in organizing the 1000 Mile Car Trial in 1900, in which Montagu had competed, as well as being a model and inspiration for some of Sykes’s earlier art works. From this commission, the prototype of the eventual Spirit of Ecstasy resulted – with a female figure in exiguous, windswept clothes, one leg raised – and with a forefinger pressed to her lips, which was easily interpreted as a symbol of secret love, and this mascot became known as The Whisper.

Owing to early Rolls Royce owners’ inclination for privately commissioning radiator adornments which Claude Johnson, the chairman of Rolls Royce, sometimes saw as inappropriate, he decided in 1910 that the company should produce its own mascot, to discourage such practices, and turned to Sykes, with the instructions to produce a symbol that would convey: “...the spirit of the Rolls Royce, namely, speed with silence, absence of vibration, the mysterious harnessing of great energy and a beautiful, living organism of superb grace.” Johnson wanted an evocation of classical beauty, in the form of Nike. Sykes then adapted the design of The Whisper into what was, at first, called the Spirit of Speed, and which became, from February 1911, the enduring symbol called the Spirit of Ecstasy; incidentally, many say still bearing Eleanor Thornton’s features. 

Indeed, it became her unofficial memorial after she was lost at sea in 1915 when, travelling with Montagu, their ship, SS Persia, was hit by a torpedo from a German U-boat in the Mediterranean. Swept out of his arms by a surge of water on deck, she was lost, but Montagu survived.  Sykes’s signature, and the date February 6th 1911, appeared on the plinths of the castings of the Spirit of Ecstasy until 1951. Originally fitted as an optional extra (and rather disliked by Henry Royce), it became standard by the 192s. 

Originally, it was silver plated, until 1914; after that nickel or chrome was used; although it has also been made in gold plate and, sadly, even studded with diamonds. The need for clearer driving vision from the windscreens of later, lower cars first gave rise to the Kneeling Lady (also designed by Sykes), which was used between 1934-1939 and also between 1946-1956; until a standing version, in a reduced size, was produced for modern vehicles.  The modern version, a mere three inches in height, retracts on impact but, despite this mundane practicality, carries with it still the romantic aura of its origins. 

Another, much less known but interesting, mascot design appeared in 1957, in Rolls Royce’s sister company. Owing to a demand for a lower, sportier Bentley saloon, the coach builder H J Mulliner (later merged with Park Ward), introduced a streamlined four-door saloon, designed by Herbert Nye, on the Bentley S1 Continental chassis. The chairman of Mulliner’s between 1944-1960 was Harry Talbot Johnstone, and the crest of a ‘winged spur’ on his arms was adopted as the Flying Spur on the radiator cap of some examples of this innovative model of Bentley. Other coach builders, such as James Young, copied the sleek four-door Continental design – and it also appeared in a Rolls Royce version - but these others are not true Flying Spurs at all; although they are often innocently misdescribed as such. 

Daimler and Mercedes Benz

Gottlieb Daimler originally founded Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft (DMG) in 1890, while Carl Benz began Benz & Cie in 1883. Both businesses helped lay the early foundations of motorized vehicle transportation, and Benz is widely credited as the inventor of the internal combustion engine, while Daimler delivered the first production-line, four cylinder street cars. The British Daimler Motor Company Limited, founded by H J Lawson in London in 1896, was entirely separate; Lawson just having bought the licence to use the Daimler name from Gottlieb Daimler. In fact, amongst the first cars collected and driven by John Douglas-Scott-Montagu were German Daimlers and, as a result of him driving the then Prince of Wales in one, the first horseless carriage soon owned by the British royal family was a German Daimler.

After Gottlieb Daimler died in 1900, chief engineer Wilhelm Maybach took over and  formed an association with racing enthusiast Emil Jellinek. It was the name of Jellinek’s daughter Mercédès – a Spanish girl’s name, meaning “mercies” (deriving from the Spanish name for the Virgin Mary), which was the inspiration for the later, enduring trade name of the merged companies, Daimler and Benz. In 1900 Jellinek had bought and modified a Daimler car, which he called ‘Mercedes’. When the Daimler and Benz companies merged in 1926, the joint brand name became Mercedes- Benz.

Daimler’s sons Paul and Adolf recalled an 1872 picture postcard sent by their father to their mother with a three-pointed star, marking the location of his house in Germany, with the explanation that, one day, the star would shine over his factory and bring prosperity to it. DMG took the star as the company’s logo, trademarking three and four-pointed stars, but only actually using the now familiar three-pointed one. The logo began in a blue colour but was changed to its signature silver after the company’s involvement in the first Grand Prix at the Nürburgring in 1934.

Meanwhile, Benz & Cie trademarked its own logo: originally, a laurel wreath surrounding the company’s name. On merger of the companies in 1926, the name became Mercedes-Benz, which first appeared in a laurel wreath, around Daimler’s three-pointed star. Accordingly, in the modern logo, which is just the three-pointed star, there is Daimler’s original concept, and in the name Mercedes-Benz there is the name of a little girl, who had no more association with either company than that her father had had an association with the Daimler company.

 According to the modern Mercedes-Benz company, the three-pointed star has always represented the company’s drive towards universal motorization; with its engines dominating all means of transport in the three elements of land, sea, and air. 

Whether the symbol of the Three Pointed Star or the symbol of the Spirit of Ecstasy now holds more sway in the imagination of the world, I leave to the reader to judge.

Saturday, 1 January 2022

Well, I suppose that I might as well restart this

I find this performance, by Elis Regina, of her own song, just the most moving performance of anything that I have ever watched. It also coincides with tremendous saudades for Brasil, and my own feelings at this time.

Friday, 31 December 2021

 It seems that people still come in here. Maybe, I will restart it, because it has never brought  me the grief of more interactive social media.

Tuesday, 13 July 2021

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Sunday, 14 February 2021

Lights Out

Maybe our souls are just part of the shared spirit of creation and, maybe, we also know, deep down, that all living things share in it and that is why every shot bird or mammal and every landed fish touches us; even though God gave man dominion over all creatures and they provide us with food and clothing.

I also think that some inanimate objects can be possessed of what we recognize as a kind of soul: look at, say a 1931 eight litre Bentley (the last in the W O Bentley direct line and only one hundred made); or a Joseph Manton musket; or the revolutionary 1875 prototype boxlock shotgun (bearing a commemorative plate), patented by Anson & Deeley of Westley Richards in 1875; or a fragile first edition (1859) of Edward FitzGerald’s translation of the Rubiáyát of Omar Khayyám. Such things as these are also touched with a kind of spirit. It was even said of Rosa Lewis’s old Cavendish Hotel ; in a fond farewell to the old place, in October 1962, and before it went to join the Tabard and the Mermaid Inns, The New Statesman said that the site of the hotel at the junction of Jermyn Street and Duke Street had become a ‘mysterious space-time inn at a metaphysical junction ’.

The great London tobacconists that I have been privileged to have known had atmospheres, auras, presences: Sullivan Powell in the Burlington Arcade, selling its majestic, great, tightly rolled, sweet, robust and untipped sub rosa Oriental Cigarettes, in their black and gold boxes of twenty five or a hundred, swathed in thick tissue paper; even unlit their aroma wooed the nostrils of the gods. Benson & Hedges were in Bond Street, with their elegant, oval Cairo Cigarettes, sold in turquoise boxes, and venerable Fribourg & Treyer (est. 1720) were near the top of Haymarket and in here, if you listened very carefully, you could still hear Beau Brummell’s retreating footsteps after placing his very last order of their Old Paris and Macouba snuffs.

Alas! All gone. Mercifully, at least, the frontage of 32 Haymarket is preserved and Wilsons of Sharrow took over the Fribourg & Treyer snuff receipts and still produce their snuffs.

Sullivan Powell’s whole range of cigarettes and Benson & Hedges’ Cairo Cigarettes were the sudden victims of over-regulation by the European Union banning all cigarettes with more than fifteen milligrammes of tar. The playwright John Osborne said in an incandescent letter to The Times:

“As a schoolboy I narrowly escaped from ‘European’ bombs on my doorstep. I can forgive this eagerness, but not the compounding of the insult by dashing the tobacco from my lips forty years on”.

Fribourg & Treyer, one of London’s oldest surviving businesses, and still successful as a tobacconist and snuff chandler, was taken over, in the early 1980s, by Imperial Tobacco, which moved them out and then shut them down.

Every time that I first missed these shops, I felt the same mingled disbelief, confusion and anger that I had felt when I first found Sulka gone from Bond Street. Disbelief and confusion because it is difficult to believe that such wonderful shops, that have been an important living part of the London landscape, can just disappear without so much as a murmur of protest or a tear of regret, and then anger that they have actually gone.

In the last year at least three more great tobacconists have shut down: first, Shervington’s (formerly John Brumfitt, who popularized Romeo y Julieta Havanas) in Holborn Bars; then S Weingott & Son (where Rumpole most certainly must have bought his small cigars), just outside the Temple, in Fleet Street and now G Smith & Sons in the Charing Cross Road. I imagine that, with the coming into force of the total ban on advertising and displaying tobacco products, most of the nation’s remaining small tobacconists (often also sweet shops and newsagents), will fall like ninepins; family businesses will be wiped out and their staff, in the midst of national bankruptcy postponed, will be put on the dole, to join the thousands already there by virtue of pub closures, in the wake of the public smoking ban, which was ostensibly introduced to protect employees from pub patrons’ smoke. Whoever dreamed up the policy for all this over-regulation lives, I warrant, either down a rabbit hole or behind a looking glass.

Those who govern the nation tell us that we live in a ‘Big Society’ of tolerance, inclusivity, classlessness and liberalism but, excuse me, I do not feel beneficially either ‘tolerated’ or ‘included’ when I am encouraged, with so much misplaced and forcible enthusiasm, to give up good tobacco, which John Osborne rightly described as “one of life’s few and reliable pleasures”. Moreover, I deeply resent it when this misplaced encouragement comes from ‘bullies’ who masquerade as ‘liberals’ in a society which is most notably ‘Big’ in being in economic free-fall and social decay. The legislative process has very swiftly moved from a position of tolerance (say, in decriminalizing homosexual practices) to the point at which we may now even marry our best male friend but, somehow, we may not lawfully join him in a cigar in the smoking room of a private club which was established to provide a place for men to sit around, and smoke, and drink and talk. The statute book reflects a very queer state of affairs indeed, resulting from twisted, tendentious reasoning, based on skewed or irrelevant evidence. A small, unventilated and smoke-filled bar might well present a health risk to a barman who works there all day, every day, for thirty years but show me a Carlton Club servant who has developed a smoking-related illness as a result of the smoking room activities of its members and note, as we pass, that at least one ‘New Labour’ member of parliament wished to excuse working men’s clubs from the smoking ban; presumably because they all agreed with John Osborne that smoking is indeed one of life’s few and reliable pleasures.

Very shortly, most remaining tobacco sales will have to be conducted through internet transactions and any remaining tobacconist shops will become blank-fronted stores reminiscent of Soho’s seedy old pornographers (before they felt able to set window displays suggestive of their wares) and all remaining tobacco shop customers will feel obliged to dart in and out of them in mufflers and macs, with hats pulled well down because, gradually, smoking tobacco is being branded a perversion; one of the many modern British taboos, dreamed up by tin-Hitlers and enforced by their jobsworths who have jumped out of the walls at us: wagging their fingers, rattling their clipboards and brandishing their regulations and cheap biros; telling us that they presume to tell us what is best for us .

What is actually best for us is to reclaim the lost land of true liberalism and true conservatism, which have been displaced by policies of commercialism and popularity-at-any-cost, developed as Thatcherism and taken to new highs (or lows) by the monstrous architects of so-called ‘New Labour’ and now the current leaders of the consensus-coalition-in-conflict. For me, reclaiming that lost land means revisiting the principles of J S Mill’s ‘On Liberty’ and understanding the basis of Disrraeli’s Tory democracy, as well as understanding and accepting that we are not all created equal in this world at all. Such understanding and acceptance of the real diversity of society is the foundation stone for our mutual compassion towards this “poor, frail, fallen humankind”.

It is the rank intolerance which is behind all the banning, as well as the control- freakery, that really sticks in my craw. Who do these people think that they are? In his book “State of Fear”, Michael Crichton mentions a woman who founded a movement to ban di-hydrogen monoxide because “it can cause drowning”. A number of morons then supported her 'movement' to ban water, which very nicely suggests that those keen on banning things are not necessarily armed with any knowledge or powers of reasoning or even appreciation of all the consequences of what they are doing. It seems that they are just empowering themselves at the expense of others’ enjoyments. That sounds more like a perversion to me than does smoking tobacco.

If the fox-hunting ban bribe to the chattering classes, in return for backing Blair’s invasion of Iraq, had ever been effective as legislation, thousands of hounds would, presumably, have been destroyed (as they are not pet dogs) and all paid hunt staff would have been put out of work; all for the sake of banning one effective means of controlling a wantonly destructive pest which (most seem to agree) needs to be controlled in some way.

The fact that the tastes and values of the urban rabble and chattering classes are increasingly pandered to by ignorant and thoughtless bullies most certainly does not make modern Britain a tolerant, inclusive, classless or liberal society at all. It is time to take a real stand against all the flummery and to support organizations such as FOREST; the Countryside Alliance, and the British Association for Shooting and Conservation; otherwise, you can bet your bottom dollar that it will not be long before there are serious moves to outlaw the actual possession and use of tobacco and to ban shooting.

Why not take a leaf out of the book of the distillers and brewers? They, despite the devastation caused by alcohol abuse (ranging from alcohol-induced dementia and sudden death to vehicle accidents causing death and permanent injury to wholly innocent by-standers), seem to have done rather better (by lobbying) than just to avoid tighter controls on the purchase and consumption of alcohol and have even managed to abolish licensing hours altogether. Where were the tight-lipped puritans then?

Religious Leaders

 Where are the so-called religious leaders - Bishops, Rabbis, Imams, and so on, at this present time? They seem to be cowering in corners.

An Open Letter to HRH The Prince of Wales


One certainly does not need to be a social historian to realize that the standards of, and restrictions upon, the royal family have lamentably slackened since a king had to give up his throne to marry an American divorcée. However, even with the general ethical decline in public life, the involvement of HRH The Prince of Wales (and any other members of the royal family), in the political and economic forum, known as the World Economic Forum, must still be a totally unacceptable breach of the important convention that, since they are unelected, the royal family must keep right out of all concerns of a political and economic nature.

When I wrote to HRH's private secretary, in September 2006, seeking support, on essentially environmental grounds, to save the old Odeon building in St Austell (before the then SWRDA, Restormel Borough Council, and our own, quite adequate, local busybodies, such as 'Brewer' James Staughton, virtually destroyed our town centre), Sir Michael Peat, by letter, dated 15th September, declined my appeal, with the words: "The problem that HRH always has is how he can intervene in a way that does not cut across the due legal processes and which does not give the impression that he is just being a busybody without any proper locus.". What, one might ask, has changed?

The purported environmental and ecological 'cover' provided by a mixed bag of unelected 'characters', such as Schwab, Gates, Soros, and Thunberg, and various tycoons, and boneheaded 'celebrities', even backed, to some extent, by national treasures, such as Sir David Attenborough, is not enough to empower an also unelected, heir presumptive to the throne to be supporting and propounding what is openly intended to be a (presumably, selective), quasi-socialist, global 'reset', imposed by Diktat of this merry band, with their recondite claims to suzerainty; least of all, side by side with: the heretical, proselytizing, communist Pope; China, and all the other big mouths involved in Herr Schwab's plans for world domination - like an insane, 'wannabe' dictator: in substance, form, appearance, and sound; right out of a second-rate Bond-style novel.

The environmental and ecological disaster, which mankind has been busily generating, actually for about the last 200 years, is an entirely separate issue, for which there is completely axiomatic, potential mitigation, once the simple will is found, within the proper governments of the world, to enact the necessary measures